After formulating the goal of the assignment, the student thinks about which steps he or she might take. Only if the student fails to do this, the teacher coaches.




After formulating the goal of the assignment, the pupil decides which steps are needed to get the answer. The teacher only coaches when the pupil fails to do this.




The pupil thinks about how to approach the task. The teacher can guide the pupil in looking for, or conceiving a step-by-step plan for doing the sum or studying the text. Step-by-step plans for sums (i.e. long division) can be demonstrated and exercised by doing similar sums. Strategies for extracting information from texts can also be demonstrated. The teacher may ask the pupil what he or she is to focus on when reading the text, in view of the assignment goal.




A calculation requires a step-by-step plan of successive calculation operations. For studying a text, the approach to reading the text can be devised beforehand. The pupil considers what he needs to pay attention to in the text.





Time savings can be obtained from planning in advance how the task can be tackled. A more effective planning also leads to more goal-oriented and therefore better answers.




There are several strategies for comprehensive reading that could contribute to metacognition.

Here we like to present  a video explaining 4 strategies for comprehensive reading, published by "School on Wheels" (Indianapolis, USA) suited for students on the primary school. School on Wheels offers education to homeless children in the South of California in order to develop academic skills (


The most important goal of a strategies for comprehensive reading is to connect "new information" to "what do I already know". 

The 4 steps in this strategy for comprehensive reading of a text in a newspaper or a story consists in:


1. Making connection 

  • text to self (how would you feel if..., do you like any of the characters? .... )
  • text to text (have you ever read about this in another book...,   does this remind you on any other story....?)
  • text to world (have you ever heard about this?, have you ever seen of anything like this? ...


2. Retelling

  • first .....
  • then ...
  • finally  ..


3. Asking questions

  • I am wondering how/ why...
  • Why  did ...
  • What would happen if ..
  • etc.

4. Making predictions

  • What would happen next